torstai 15. helmikuuta 2018

Edgar O. (Ed) Schmued

Edgar O. (Ed) Schmued (Schmüd), German-American aircraft designer (1899–1985) was famed for his design of the iconic North American P-51 Mustang and, later, the F-86 Sabre while at North American Aviation. He later worked on other aircraft designs as an aviation consultant.

Edgar Schmued was born in Hornbach, Germany, 30 December 1899. At the age of eight, he first saw an airplane in flight and decided that aviation was to be his life's work. Edgar embarked early on a rigorous program of self-study to become an engineer, and later served an apprenticeship in a small engine factory. He also designed several innovative engine components for which he received patents. In his spare time, he continued the self-study of aviation. Schmued left his native Bavaria for Brazil in 1925, seven years after World War I had shattered the German economy. 

His experience in Germany led to employment with the General Aviation, the air branch of General Motors Corporation in Brazil. In 1931, he was sponsored to move to the United States through his excellent work for General Motors in Brazil (immigration rules were extremely strict at that time - he was one of 794 people admitted in the quota) and went straight to work for Fokker Aircraft Corporation of America, which was an aircraft company that was owned by General Motors and based in New Jersey. There he began his career as an aircraft design engineer. General Motors later sold its air arm and it became the forerunner of North American Aviation.
The talented and inventive Schmued, by now a citizen of the United States, was employed by North American Aviation (NAA) in Dundalk, Maryland. In 1935, North American was relocated to Los Angeles, California, from General Motors. When his wife Luisa proved reluctant to relocate from the east coast, Schmued joined Bellanca but his time there was short-lived. While traveling to California to work again for North American, the Schmueds were involved in a head-on collision on Route 60. Schmued's wife was killed, while he himself was seriously injured.

North American Aviation
After recovering, Schmued went to work for "Dutch" Kindelberger in early 1936 as a preliminary design engineer. He was involved in the XB-21 (designing the front turret), creating the NA-50 single-engine fighter for Peru then going on to design work on the NA-62 (later the B-25 Mitchell). Schmued later became Chief of Preliminary Design.

During his long tenure at NAA, Schmued contributed greatly to the design of many airplanes. By far his most famous design was the highly successful P-51 Mustang of World War II. The legend began with NAA's President, "Dutch" Kindelberger asking, "Ed, do we want to build P-40s here?" Schmued had been long awaiting a question like this. His answer began the design process, "Well, Dutch, don't let us build an obsolete airplane, let's build a new one. We can design and build a better one." 

His adaptation of the then new laminar flow wing and other innovations made the P-51 performance outstanding in all respects and its flying qualities superb. This aircraft was still winning races and setting speed records for piston engine-powered airplanes decades after its production had ended. Although he was renowned as a workaholic at North American, Schmued undertook the design of the Morrow Victory Trainer in 1941 on an independent contract; it was dubbed the "Mini-Mustang" because of its close resemblance to the P-51.

Fueled by a striking similarity of the early Mustang and the German Messerschmitt Bf 109 - pilots and ground crews of both sides confused the two aircraft - and Schmued's German origin, an urban legend has grown up, claiming he had once worked for Willy Messerschmitt and that the Mustang was heavily influenced by the Bf 109. Neither claim is true but the urban legend persists. 

Schmued's team at NAA did receive, disassemble and inspect the first captured Bf 109 from the Spanish Civil War in 1939, and he regularly received copies of German Aeronautical Engineering Journals through 1941 supplied by Jim McGowan, ALCOA's consulting sales engineer. Just as familiar is the notion that the abortive Curtiss XP-46 was the basis of the P-51 design.

Schmued was employed by North American Aviation, later a division of the Rockwell International Corporation, for 22 years. During his tenure, Schmued also designed the F-82 and, the other iconic NAA designs, the F-86 Sabre and F-100 Super Sabre.
                                                          A36 A

Northrop and later years
After leaving North American in August 1952, Schmued spent five years as Vice President of Engineering for the Northrop Corporation. At Northrop he recruited a top engineering team he used to develop the successful F-5 supersonic light fighter and the closely related T-38 trainer. 

For these aircraft Schmued emphasized not only performance, but simplicity, safety, low cost, and long service life. The resulting F-5 was not only the most cost effective U.S. supersonic fighter, but likely also the most combat effective U.S. air-to-air fighter design in the 1960s and early 1970s. The well regarded and long lived F-5 and the 
T-38 aircraft remain in active service as of 2014. 

The F-5 serves as an adversary aircraft for the U.S. Air Force and Navy in fighter combat training, as well as a front line fighter in the air forces of more than 20 nations. The T-38 has served as the primary advanced/supersonic trainer for the U.S. Air Force for more than 50 years, a record unequaled by any other aircraft of this class.

Edgar Schmued continued his aircraft design work as an independent consultant following his retirement from Northrop in October, 1957. He consulted for the U.S. Department of Defense, allied nations, for private companies, and for the film industry making aviation related movies. He worked actively until shortly before his death on 1 June 1985.

Any damned fool can criticize, but it takes a genius to design it in the first place.

— Edgar Schmued, Chief Designer North American Aviation

maanantai 12. helmikuuta 2018

Dux Factory

Dux (Russian: Завод «Дукс», translit. Zavod "Duks") was a bicycle / automobile / aircraft factory in Moscow, Russia before and during World War I.

The factory was founded in 1893. The name comes from the Latin word dux (leader). Y. A. Meller was owner of the factory which was primarily focused on the building of French aircraft designs.
                Kuvahaun tulos haulle pao Dux

The majority of types built by Dux were French and other Western aircraft designs. The first aircraft made was a licensed Farman IV with ENV engine, which made its first flight on August 18, 1910. From there, in addition to copies, some improvements were designed for existing models. The first of these was a Farman VII in 1912 with some improvements that were put into production. 

A more ambitious project was the Dux Meller I which combined a Bleriot main fuselage with a Farman XV nacelle added, all driven by a 100 hp Gnome-Rhone in pusher configuration. A modified Farman XVI was later produced under the name Dux Meller II and flown in 1913. 

The following Dux Meller III was a failed attempt to produce a single-engine twin-propeller chain-driven monoplane. Further work went into the Dux No 2 but this was also a failure. While engineering continued on a new twin engine pusher, in the end the factory's primary activity was construction of Western designs.
FateNationalized, later reinstated as a private company
Key people
Julius MellerMukhtar Mejidov
ProductsAircraft components, Missiles,
Military aircraft
Many of the Moscow-based plants of the former Dux Factory were evacuated in 1941 and went on to become separate companies. The Dux factory gave the origin to many production institutions, among which are some worldwide recognized firms.

The factory was established in Moscow in 1893 as a bicycle production plant. Production shifted to aircraft manufacturing in 1910. During World War I Dux produced Voisin LAS, Nieuport 17, Nieuport 24, Farman family of aircraft including models IV, VII, XVI, XXX, as well as a large number of military bicycles.

After the October Revolution the plant was named "Aircraft plant #1 named after OSOAVIAKHIM" or "GAZ No. 1". Farmans and Nieuports were left in production.
                Kuvahaun tulos haulle pao Dux
                Kuvahaun tulos haulle pao Dux

                Kuvahaun tulos haulle pao Dux
In 1923 a design bureau was established at the plant, headed by Nikolai Nikolaevich Polikarpov; this would later become known as the Polikarpov Design Bureau.

Production models included I-5, I-15, I-15bis, I-153, I-16, R-5, and R-Zet aircraft. Polikarpov also built Airco DH.9A (which later became Polikarpov R-1/Polikarpov R-2) and Airco DH.4 during the 1920s and 1930s.

Plant #1 produced the MiG-3 before evacuation in October 1941. Plant #1 was evacuated to Samara in 1941, becoming the Kuibyshev Aviation Plant. In 1958 it shifted its production to rockets, and became known as the Samara Progress plant.

Main article: Moscow Aircraft Production Association
Plant #30 was established in 1939 in Dubna. In December 1941 it was relocated to the former site of Plant #1, where it manufactured the Ilyushin Il-2. 
In 1950 it merged with Plant #381, to produce the Il-28 in larger volumes. 
In 1953 Lukhovitsy Machine Building Plant was established as a subsidiary of the plant.

Plant #30 became known as the Znamya Truda Machine-Building Plant in 1965,
and as the Moscow Aircraft Production Organisation in 1973.

The MiG-29 was put in production. Civil programs include MiG-AT, T-101, T-411, and Aviatika MAI-890 aircraft. After this the following aircraft were produced: Su-9, Yak-25, Il-14, Il-18 with modifications, MiG-21, and MiG-23.

Plant #32 was established in 1932, when it was separated from Plant #1.[1] In 1941 it was evacuated to Kirov, becoming the Kirov Machine-Building Plant in 1960 and the Vyatka Machine Building Enterprise AVITEK in the 1990s.

Plant #39 produced the DB-3F before evacuation in October 1941. Plant #39 was moved to Irkutsk in 1941, where it was merged with the Irkutsk Machine-Building Plant, ultimately establishing the Irkutsk Aviation Plant.

Main article: Moscow Kommunar Machine-Building Plant
Plant #43 was established in 1941 on the former site of the evacuated Plant #32. Between 1963 and 1992 it was known as the Moscow Kommunar Machine-Building Plant. It focuses on air-to-air missile production and some aircraft sub-components. In 1992 it became the Open Joint Stock Company Dux.

Plant #381 produced the La-5 and later the La7. Plant #381 also produced the Il-12, a small series of I-250, and the first 75 of MiG-15. In 1950 it was merged into Plant #30.

Loening OL

The Loening OL, also known as the Loening Amphibian, was an American two-seat amphibious biplane built by Loening for the United States Army Air Corps and the United States Navy.

First flown in 1923, the OL was a high-performance amphibian with a large single hull and stabilizing floats fitted underneath each lower wing. The landing gear was retractable by use of a hand crank in the cockpit, and the plane was equipped with a tailskid for operations on land. It had a tandem open cockpit for a crew of two. The aircraft could be flown from either cockpit, with a wheel control in the forward cockpit and a removable stick control in the rear. Navigation and engine instruments were located in the forward cockpit.

General characteristics
Crew: two
Length: 10.59 m
Wingspan: 13.72 m
Height: 3.89 m
Wing area: 46.82 m2
Empty weight: 1655 kg
Gross weight: 2451 kg
Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340-4 Wasp radial piston engine, 450 hp (336 kW)
Maximum speed: 196 km/h
Range: 1006 km
Service ceiling: 4360 m

                Loening OA-1A USAF.jpg
The hull was built of Duralumin on a wooden frame, with five watertight compartments connected through a selector switch to a bilge pump in the rear cockpit. Plugs in the bottom of each compartment permitted drainage on the ground. The fuselage was constructed on top of the hull. The aircraft was strength-tested at Columbia University.
                Kuvahaun tulos haulle Loening OL
The United States Army Air Corps ordered four prototypes as the XCOA-1, powered by a 400-hp Liberty V-1650-1 engine mounted inverted for clearance of the three-bladed variable-pitch steel propeller. The engine came with a fire suppression sprinkler system and was encased in a streamlined cowling to protect it from sea spray. Oil from a tank in the fuselage was cooled by passing through a spiral copper tube exposed to the slipstream on top of the cowling. 

The fuel tanks were mounted inside the hull, with a 530-liter gasoline tank under the wings, and a reserve 230-liter gasoline-benzol tank between the cockpits. Total fuel capacity provided for roughly ten hours of flight.

A number of variants were introduced for both the Army and the Navy. During later production, the company merged with the Keystone Aircraft Corporation.
               Kuvahaun tulos haulle Loening OL